How To Export Garmin GPS Data Into Arcmap

Posted by ForestryGIS on Tuesday, October 23, 2012

If you want to export coordinates data from the a handheld Garmin GPS to ArcMap, you can use MapSource and Excel.

Follow the steps below:
  1. Connect GPS to the computer using the GPS PC interface connector.
  2. Turn on the GPS unit.
  3. Open Mapsource
  4. Select correct coordinate settings in Mapsource by: a. Select Edit > Preferences; Position tab b. Position format: UTM c. Datum: NAD27CONUS
  5. Transfer > Receive from device > Receive Make sure that only the waypoints are checked. If you have tracks, I recommend downloading tracks and waypoints separately.
  6. Save Mapsource file (.gdb or .mps) in case you need to change the datum or projection for the GPS points at a later time. File > Save > Save “file_name.gdb” in your student folder.
  7. Export to text (tab delimited) file. File > Save as > text (tab delimited) > Save “file_name.txt” in your student folder.
  8. Open Microsoft Office Excel.
  9. Main menu > File > Open > Browse to student folder > Select file_name.txt file.
  10. Select delimited text > next > check tab > finish. Save file as .xls in case you need to repeat steps at a later time.
  11. Delete the first three rows (Grid row, Datum row, and blank row). Delete the blank row between the field headers and the waypoints.
  12. Delete unnecessary columns.
  13. Insert 3 columns after “Position” column.
  14. Highlight the “Position” column.
  15. Separate your latitude and longitude coordinates into individual columns. Data Tab > Text to Columns > Delimited > next >check Space > Finish.
  16. Add/change the field headers for Eastings, Northings, and Elevation (Z).
  17. Save file as a text .txt
  18. Optional: Save as .xls file using a different file name.
  19. Exit out of Excel. You can not import the .txt file into ArcMap with the file open in Excel
  1. Open your class project in ArcMap
  2. Add XY data from text file a. Main Menu > Tools > Add XY Data b. Browse to folder > Select the file you created in previous step c. Set the X Field and the Y Field to “Eastings” and “Northings” in the drop down menu d. Under Define Spatial Reference of Input Coordinates. Edit > Select > Projected > UTM > NAD 1927 > NAD 1927 UTM Zone 11N.prj > OK
  3. You will get a warning stating that the Table Does Not Have Object-ID > OK
  4. Export XY points to Shapefile. Right-click on waypoint event layer. Data > Export Data > check this layer’s data source. Wave the “waypoint.shp” file in your student folder. Choose to add the exported data to the map as a layer.
  5. Optional: Remove XY Events. Right-click on event layer > Remove
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Tree Inventories and GIS in Urban Forestry

Posted by ForestryGIS on Sunday, August 5, 2012

GIS is a tool that gives urban foresters and planners the ability to better manage and predict future growth of the urban forests. However, urban forests are very complex systems. Unlikelarge tracts of forest lands that are managed by one owner or organization with a set of goals, urban forests are broken up into many small tracts or plots with multiple owners and many different land uses. Urban land can be categorized into three different land uses; non-industrial or private, industrial or commercial, and public land. Due to the diversity in land uses, managing and maintaining urban trees is an extremely difficult task.

Urban forests are managed by a large number of individuals who have many different objectives and goals. Arborists, landscapers, horticulturists, planners, and wildlife biologists are among some of the professionals who are involved with managing urban forests. Homeowners, garden clubs, and other nature groups are also involved and interested in beautifying their community. In addition teachers are constantly looking for places where children can learn about the trees and forests, and the important biological role they play in our global system. The activities of all the different owners and multiple land uses influence the overall appearance and quality of the entire community. 

Having such a diverse group involved means there is a vast level of knowledge and understanding with regard to the trees and how all of their functions relate in the urban forest. It is up to urban foresters as well as other trained and educated professionals to provide the public with current and correct information regarding urban forestry. Educating the public regarding urban forestry issues and all of the associated benefits urban forests provide is essential to help improve the quality of life in the urban setting.

A large amount of money is spent each year on trees and landscaping in a community, from planting new trees to tree removals or take downs. All too often, new landscapes are over planted, meaning too many plants or the wrong plant species were selected for the area resulting in either the lack of growing space for the trees root system or the crown competes for space and interfere with overhead utility wires. It is very important to select the right tree species for the right site to meet the intended objective.

When selecting a tree for a particular area in the landscape several components need to be considered such as shade tolerance, the amount of sun or shade that plant requires, how large the tree will grow when it is mature, and selecting trees that are healthy and have good form. Other problems that are commonly found in the landscape are that trees are not planted correctly, often the roots balls are planted too deep or too shallow. Trees that are planted incorrectly can cause the tree to decline or die. The importance of young tree pruning is very beneficial to improve tree form at maturity. The minor costs of correctly pruning a young tree can improve tree form which in turn can save a lot of money later on. Providing tree care for young trees can reduce future hazardous problems and liability.

Tree inventories are generally not conducted for the private sector or on a plot by plot basis because most of these areas only have a few trees on each plot. Street and park trees are primarily the only trees being inventoried and managed in the urban setting, these trees are located on commercial and public lands. However, trees that are on private land make up a large percentage of the entire urban forests and many of these trees are not being managed. Street and park trees only make up a small percentage of all of the trees that are located in the urban landscape. An ecosystem management approach would include all of the trees that make up the urban forests. Inventorying all the trees in
the three land use categories would allow urban foresters to better predict the cost benefits and management needs that are required.  GIS applications such as CITYgreen have the capability of analyzing the entire urban forested areas. They have the potential to predict future maintenance costs and to project future growth and energy savings.

Urban foresters and planners have to start working closely together to effectively plan the urban system. Construction sites in the past have often been cleared of all existing trees, shrubs, and the organic matter. There has been efforts to keep some of the existing trees which unfortunately usually die due to numerous problems such as soil compaction, root disturbance, change in soil grade, and impervious surfaces which reduces or prohibits infiltration and water uptake by tree roots.

Urban planners and contractors need to work with urban foresters to determine which trees should be preserved on a given site and the best ways to minimize damaging these trees. In the planning stage planners have to make sure there is sufficient space to allow for trees to be planted if trees are included in a plan. For example; the area between sidewalks and roads needs to be wide enough to sustain the root system of a tree or planters in a parking lot should be large enough to ensure the tree will have enough nutrients and water to maintain tree vigor and health. Urban foresters and urban planners can work together using GIS to better manage this resource. Urban planners usually know very little about what conditions and space trees require, just as most urban foresters know very little about designing a city. However, the two disciplines working together can be very effective in producing a beautiful urban setting.

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Geodatabase (GIS-Based Database)

Posted by ForestryGIS on Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Database (database) is a logical collection of interrelated information managed and stored as a single unit. GIS database (Geodatabase) generally covers the spatial location and shape of the feature is stored in the form of point, line, polygon, pixel / grid / cell or TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) equipped with a data attribute.
In another sense, the database is also a set or collection of data or files stored interconnected in a single media (electronic) in an organized manner, so that it can be accessed easily and quickly. So the geodatabase is a database of geographic data.
So that the database can be accessed easily and quickly, then the database must have created the database structure is compact, efficient and systematic structure of the table, space (memory) storage in a compact, efficient table size to speed up the process, little / no repetition, and there is no ambiguity of data from all the existing table. Or in general can be called a geodatabase (GIS-based database).
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Benefits of Remote Sensing in Plantation

Posted by ForestryGIS

Benefits of Remote Sensing on the farm by using aerial photographs / satellite imagery can provide a picture of the land at any one time. Real picture will be easier for us to manage the plantation. As for some of the benefits of remote sensing in plantations are as follows:
  1. Be able to know accurately the actual acreage planted.
  2. On oil palm plantations, will allow to see one at a stand of trees, so the number of plants can be known.
  3. Can know the plants that still require fertilization.
  4. Can monitor plant growth, the rate of planting, selection of plants that are harvested, the crop damage caused by pests and diseases, etc. (for use on a regular basis)
  5. Can be used to predict crop yields, etc.
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UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) Coordinate Projection System

Posted by ForestryGIS

In GIS there are two commonly used coordinate system, the geographic coordinates and UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator). Projected Coordinate System UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) is a series of the Transverse Mercator projection for the globe where the earth is divided into 60 zones. Each zone covers 6 degrees of longitude (longitude) and has its own central meridian. Unlike the geographic coordinates of the unit is the unit of degrees, UTM coordinates using a meter unit. Each zone has a length of 500,000 meters x and y length of 10,000,000 meters.

These projections are the basis of the coordinates of a global system that was originally developed for military purposes, but is now used more widely.

Thus, zone 1 at the beginning of 1800 UTM coordinates of BB-1740 BB, then proceed to the second zone which starts from 1740 BB-1680 BB, 3 zone starts from 1680 BB-1620 BB, etc. ... While for the limit of latitude divided by the value of 8 degrees .

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What is Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)?

Posted by ForestryGIS

Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) is a vector-based topological data model is used to present the way the earth (terrain). The TIN present form of the earth's surface is obtained from the sample points are scattered irregularly and further break line, and form a triangular irregular network of interconnected. Each triangle consists of three vertices have coordinates x, y and elevation (z).
TIN will produce solid information in a complex area, and information on areas that are rarely homogeneous. Triangle always has three nodes and usually has three neighboring triangles, triangle on the edge but usually only have one or two neighbors.
The TIN is a DED (Digital Elevation Data) stored in a vector format, so to get a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the TIN must be converted from vector format to raster format.
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Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Digital Elevation Data (DED)

Posted by ForestryGIS

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) constructed from Digital Elevation Data (DED). DED is a set of digital data that has a height information on the surface of the earth. DED is commonly used in the analysis of the topography for the purposes of engineering, planning, military, etc..

In engineering for example be used to calculate cut and fill in road construction, or in the field of hydrology is used for flood analysis, manufacturing planning DAM, etc..

The method used to save the DED can be grouped into four formats that are putting in a grid, contours, profiles and TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network). DED can degenerate the existing contours of the data, or from analysis of aerial photographs fotogametri stereo, or it could be from stereo satellite data.

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a DED that are stored in a grid or raster format, where the elevation data presented sequentially to the columns and rows in the form of cells or more commonly known as a picture element (pixel). Each pixel represents a square-shaped area and are generally square and each pixel has coordinates and information (spatial and time attributes).

Data that can be built from the DEM elevation class map, slope map, the map speck, Sub-watershed maps, water flow direction maps, 3-dimensional maps, etc..
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Download Map From OpenStreetMap in ArcGIS 10

Posted by ForestryGIS on Wednesday, July 11, 2012

1 – Open ArcGIS 10 shapefile and load the file in your area of interest:

2 – Click the menu File – Add Data – Add Basemap

3 – Select the service OpenStreetMap and click Add :

4 – Data will be downloaded to the desktop of ArcGIS 10 (wait a minute). If you see a message about changing the hardware acceleration on your computer, click YES:

5 - To use this map offline, you can export as image in JPG format with File worldfile. Click the menu File – Export Data :

6 – Select the output format JPG and expand the resolution to 300 dpi. Check the Write worldfile to preserve the official position of the photo:

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